On May 13th, I gave a lecture at the Lyme Academy of Fine Art in Old Lyme CT. The focus of the talk was the Color Palettes of Robert Henri. This lecture contained some elements from my October lecture at the Robert Henri Museum in Cozad, Nebraska. But because I was delivering this lecture to faculty and students who are artists and painters, I focused much more on the practical aspects of Henri’s palette designs. I also touched upon some of the palettes I did not get to at the Robert Henri Conference 2021. The lecture was recorded by a Lyme Academy student, Bess Kelpin. I am very grateful for her assistance. Here is a selection from the lecture highlighting Chords, images from my personal Chord Chart, my version of the Ross Palette #4 and the Rubens Palette #10, my Spectrum Palette of H.G. Maratta, my version of the Intensity Palette Chart of 1919, and Henri’s Triangular Palette with the practical layout. I will release more excerpts from this lecture soon.
Below are images that appeared in my lecture but were accidentally cut out during the recording. The painting of “Nora,” 1913, was painted in the chord of RO-G-BP, O hue, GBB Bi, PR Bi, plus a third line of neutrals derived from the combination of Bi colors and Hues. I took these color notes of “Nora” by Henri directly from his “Paint Notebooks.”
Here is an example of the Intensity Palette of Dec. 19, 1915, in the Key of OY, where Henri creates a hierarchy of intensity as expressed through the pyramidal shape of the palette. At the apex is OY placed at the highest intensity. The adjacent colors to OY descend in intensity on each side toward the P. The intensity falls again from the P to the neutralized Hues of R, Y, and Bhue, with RO at the bottom appearing at the lowest intensity. This diagram should be inserted before the last video clip: “At the bottom right is the schematic diagram of the same palette…”
In the next blog, I will release more lecture excerpts, including the Triangular Palette, the Permanent Palette design, and others. I hope you find Henri’s investigations as inspiring as I have- Enjoy!
As my readers know, Robert Henri conducted intensive research into color palettes and contemporary color theory. But he also studied colored pigments to learn about their archival permanency and whether certain pigments could be mixed without affecting their integrity. Post WW I, artists’ pigments became corrupted with impurities because the war damaged Europe and its industrial complex. America had previously imported many pigments used to manufacture artists’ oil paints from Germany, Holland, and northern Europe. With this infrastructure damaged, artists’ pigments lacked quality. Henri, along with H.G. Maratta and George Bellows began an organization to support artists, The League of American Artists. Henri was tasked with studying artist pigments and producing a guide as to the permanency of artists’ oil paints on the market to help artists maintain a high level of material integrity in their work.
In Henri’s Pigment Notebooks, you see Henri looking at the pigment strength, purity, and lightfastnes of the color of, say, ultramarine blue and comparing it across all available brands. Henri also compared material, and chemical analysis by leading experts such as Blockx, Toch, Church, and others including some manufacturers like Winsor & Newton. Henri produced a document for The League of American Artists to be distributed to its members. It was in the style of a workbook in which artists could fill blank pages within the book as they conducted their personal research into their paint and pigments. This book was never published as the League disbanded for unknown reasons, probably financial.
What came out of this research by Henri was the development of a series of palette designs based on his study of pigments both organic and inorganic as well as, new synthetic pigments. Henri referred to these palettes as “The Permanent Palettes” because he was sure of their inherent integrity, and that each pigment could be intermixed on this palette with guarantees as to its archival quality. Henri began this series of palettes around 1920-21. I have reproduced here Henri’s Permanent Palette 1922-E. I chose to work with this palette because Henri synthesized and harmonized the Permanent Palette design over several versions landing on this final palette.
In this Permanent Palette, 1922-E, Henri’s goal was “to build up to color.” He begins on the top row (horizontal) by keeping his tones deep in value and suppressed in intensity. Most colors along this top-line contain some earth pigments with the exception of viridian [third from right], which suppress the chroma. Then in the descending columns, Henri increases the value and the intensity simultaneously in the middle values. Then, as the value increases with the addition of white added to the mixtures, the color loses its intensity. Therefore, the bottom of each column contains colors that are reduced in intensity by adding white, which is a neutralizer. The light tones of VR, BV, and GB, Henri will use as his lighteners (these will be used as substitutes for the raw white). So what you see is a progression from a dark semi-neutralized tone, to a middle value of high intensity followed by a reduction in intensity in the lightest notes. The highest chroma will fall within the halftone range on a portrait. [Note that the above version of this palette, I have replicated from Henri’s notes. I have also added wax medium to this version to suppress the reflection on the pigments. This has slightly lightened the overall value of the palette in this photo reproduction].
Intensity is concentrated in the middle-value range in this palette. Henri’s paintings at this time express color emerging out of a darkened neutrality as in “Bernadita,” 1922. These images seem a throwback to an earlier Henri style and may reflect Henri’s own emotions about the war in Europe. They are reminiscent of his earlier Spanish types. But these new images do not rely on simple blacks and browns as his earlier work had done. Henri imbues this new work with color that simmers below the surface and is not immediately felt. These deeper tones interact with the more intense colors in the middle range through simultaneous contrast- deep complementary tones highlighting the higher chroma areas. These images are experiments that help Henri realize his command of color in the late Irish portraits of children of 1926-28. Henri, in the late portraits, consolodates his color expression and allows color to vibrate on the surface of the canvas and within the viewer’s mind through optical transformations.
My interest in these “Permanent Palettes” connects to my recent interest in George Inness’ landscapes. There is a prevailing sense of suppressing a portion of the full palette through neutral mixes and allowing other parts to reach full chroma. Combining these opposing levels of intensity creates a dynamic force within the image. By holding this force down, one actually gains in color power. It is an interplay that allows me to understand more clearly, the optical effects achieved through the juxtaposition of the large masses, the power of the neutral, and the movement between color temperature in the modeling of forms.
This type of experimentation opens one up to new ways of working and thinking. Henri’s goal was to engage in each painting moment as a new experience in which the artist brings to bear his whole being, not relying on rote habits of past painting methods.
“Personal experimentation is revealing, and, once you get into it, immensely engaging.”