As part of my studies into the palettes of Denman Ross, I have been reading and experimenting with Arthur Pope’s palettes as presented in his The Painter’s Terms, Vol. 1, 1929. In this work, Pope reviews the concepts Ross had based his palettes on as well as re-presenting Ross’ Palette 1H and 1C (this can be found in The Painter’s Palette by Ross, p. 24). I found Pope’s version, Type B Palette, very enlightening. Pope lays out the color spectrum following the 7 value structure between the extremes of white at the top and black at the bottom (Ross, see above). The colors of the spectrum are mixed so that their value follows this structure. So some colors are lightened or darkened to a set value between HLt and LD, depending on their placement within this value structure.
These palettes contain 2 opposing movements-a movement up to Y at HLt set against a movement down to Y at LD. Each column is aligned with its complement. There is both a warm version and a cool version of the Type B Palette (hence why Ross referred to his as 1H and 1C). The warm version, Fig. 54 and 55 (Pope), contains the colors Y, OY, O, RO, R, VR, V at their, “… normal value levels in the tone solid, and may be obtained at their highest intensities.” (Pope, p. 132) The cool version presents the Y, YG, G, GB, B, BV, V at their normal value level and therefore, allow them to appear at their highest level of intensity in this cool version (Pope, Fig.56, p. 132, not shown).
I would like to examine the Type B Palette, warm version (Diagram above). Pope sets it out very much like Ross had, except he identifies the nomenclature of the mixes (the mixes I am referring to are those that run down the middle of each column). And by naming them, clarifies how they look and how they fall along the color spectrum as near-neutrals. These mixes are created by mixing colors on a diagonal (as Ross had recommended). If we examine Fig. 55, Pope lays out the possible mixes, along the diagonals as well as between the direct neutrals, in the Type B Palette in two columns on either side of the circle diagrams. By laying it out in this fashion, we can examine the movement along the color spectrum of these near-neutrals. On the left column in the center, in smaller print, we can see a descending movement from G, YG, Y, OY, O, RO. And on the right in the center column a descending movement from R, VR, V, BV, B, GB. The direct neutrals appear between these mixes, such as R and G.
I have re-created these two diagrams, with the G-RO descending movement first and the R-GB descending movement second.
These two descending movements indicate near-neutrals that mimic the color spectrum in its recession, 6 colors in each column separated by the direct neutral mixes. This is very similar to H.G. Maratta’s Bi colors which are mixes that follow the color spectrum and are created from near-neutrals. Near-neutrals maintain an integrity of color identification that is not possible in direct neutrals. When a near-neutral is mixed the color obtained shifts that mixture from the center of the color wheel (where neutrals are situated) toward a specific color area. Pope explores this phenomena in the circle diagrams in Fig. 55. If we look at the RO-GB diagram, we can see that a direct line drawn between these complements creates a neutral that falls directly in the center of the circle. If, instead, the RO is mixed with G, the line drawn between these two colors shifts the mix toward the OY, as indicated in the diagram. If the RO is mixed with say, a B, this mix will shift the color mixture toward the BV. This is the best graphic that I have come across to explain where a near-neutral will fall within a color wheel or along the color spectrum (of reduced intensity, semi-neutral tones).
I experimented with these near-neutrals for the colors R and RO. If we look at the R (on the left), I mixed the R with YG, G (the direct neutral), GB. Pope calls these the O, N (neutral), BV near-neutrals. I have added white to these tones next to the mixes, so the nature of the color can be seen. With the RO I mixed with G, GB, B plus white again. Pope calls these the OY, N, V near- nuetrals. I also mixed the RO with the YG because Maratta calls this his OY bi color.
I also compared Maratta’s version with Pope’s version. Maratta’s appear in parentheses. Some of Maratta’s near-neutrals are mixed with slightly different combinations (which I prefer for their greater intensity) and some are exactly the same but may have a different nomenclature. Maratta’s near-neutrals, his term-bi colors, follow a progression along the color spectrum just as Ross’ and Pope’s versions.
I feel this experiment has helped me to understand the nature of the near-neutrals and how they tend or shift to a specific area of color within the color wheel or along the spectrum band. This will facilitate a more subtle understanding of neutrals especially for flesh tones. Also knowing where these near-neutrals fall along the spectrum could assist in creating areas of paint that can heighten one another through juxtaposition. A near-neutral OY could be placed along side a near-neutral BV to create a complementary interplay. Or a strong BV could find added intensity along side a near-neutral OY. One could play with optical mixing or a contrast of complements. Either way, with this knowledge, the tools are now in the hands of the artist.
[I would like to thank Bill Reed for pointing out this text, The Painter’s Terms, by Arthur Pope that has been so enlightening].