I gave a lecture at the Lyme Academy of Fine Art in Old Lyme, CT, on May 13, 2022. This video segment is Part 2 of my presentation. My focus for the lecture was the Color Palettes of Robert Henri. This lecture contained some of the elements from my October 2021 lecture at the Robert Henri Museum in Cozad, Nebraska. But because I was delivering this lecture to faculty and students who are artists and painters, I focused primarily on the practical aspects of Henri’s palette designs. I also discussed some palettes I did not get to at the Henri Conference 2021.
This part of the lecture covers more on the Triangular Palette, The 50% Intensity Palette, The Permanent Palette, and The Late Palettes of 1926-28.
Below are images and excerpts that appear in my lecture but were accidentally cut out during the recording.
The Permanent Palette 1922-E
Commentary on the Permanent Palette, 1922-E: Henri begins on the top line, with colors that contain earth pigments keeping the overall value and intensity reduced. Descending from this top line, he then increases the pigment strength as he raises the value. The colors of the highest Intensity lie in the mid-tone range. Those color notes in the higher value register produce a series of colors neutralized by the addition of white. Note the vertical sequence of neutrals in the far right column.
The Last Palette, “A Sequence of 5 Played Against the Complement”
Commentary: Here, you can see Henri working out which colors would appear on the palette if he mixed the B with the near complements of RO and OY. Quote, “This palette will result in RO color, O color, OY color, GB Bi, B color, BP Bi, and B hue.“
Commentary on the color swatches: Here is the schematic design of the palette listing the pigments Henri will use to create these mixes. Note Henri’s personal shorthand on this page. Henri lays out the palette with 37 flesh tones pre-mixed and set with swatches on this page.
The video ends abruptly—my last idea centers around the participation of the viewer. Quote, “The artist just leads them to the well, and the viewer then drinks from the well themselves. This type of painting stimulates engagement and brings about the renewal of both artist and viewer- each finding his own path.” The lecture concludes by focusing on color as language.
Although this video has several interruptions, I hope you may find some ideas that activate your painting practice.
As my readers know, Robert Henri conducted intensive research into color palettes and contemporary color theory. But he also studied colored pigments to learn about their archival permanency and whether certain pigments could be mixed without affecting their integrity. Post WW I, artists’ pigments became corrupted with impurities because the war damaged Europe and its industrial complex. America had previously imported many pigments used to manufacture artists’ oil paints from Germany, Holland, and northern Europe. With this infrastructure damaged, artists’ pigments lacked quality. Henri, along with H.G. Maratta and George Bellows began an organization to support artists, The League of American Artists. Henri was tasked with studying artist pigments and producing a guide as to the permanency of artists’ oil paints on the market to help artists maintain a high level of material integrity in their work.
In Henri’s Pigment Notebooks, you see Henri looking at the pigment strength, purity, and lightfastnes of the color of, say, ultramarine blue and comparing it across all available brands. Henri also compared material, and chemical analysis by leading experts such as Blockx, Toch, Church, and others including some manufacturers like Winsor & Newton. Henri produced a document for The League of American Artists to be distributed to its members. It was in the style of a workbook in which artists could fill blank pages within the book as they conducted their personal research into their paint and pigments. This book was never published as the League disbanded for unknown reasons, probably financial.
What came out of this research by Henri was the development of a series of palette designs based on his study of pigments both organic and inorganic as well as, new synthetic pigments. Henri referred to these palettes as “The Permanent Palettes” because he was sure of their inherent integrity, and that each pigment could be intermixed on this palette with guarantees as to its archival quality. Henri began this series of palettes around 1920-21. I have reproduced here Henri’s Permanent Palette 1922-E. I chose to work with this palette because Henri synthesized and harmonized the Permanent Palette design over several versions landing on this final palette.
In this Permanent Palette, 1922-E, Henri’s goal was “to build up to color.” He begins on the top row (horizontal) by keeping his tones deep in value and suppressed in intensity. Most colors along this top-line contain some earth pigments with the exception of viridian [third from right], which suppress the chroma. Then in the descending columns, Henri increases the value and the intensity simultaneously in the middle values. Then, as the value increases with the addition of white added to the mixtures, the color loses its intensity. Therefore, the bottom of each column contains colors that are reduced in intensity by adding white, which is a neutralizer. The light tones of VR, BV, and GB, Henri will use as his lighteners (these will be used as substitutes for the raw white). So what you see is a progression from a dark semi-neutralized tone, to a middle value of high intensity followed by a reduction in intensity in the lightest notes. The highest chroma will fall within the halftone range on a portrait. [Note that the above version of this palette, I have replicated from Henri’s notes. I have also added wax medium to this version to suppress the reflection on the pigments. This has slightly lightened the overall value of the palette in this photo reproduction].
Intensity is concentrated in the middle-value range in this palette. Henri’s paintings at this time express color emerging out of a darkened neutrality as in “Bernadita,” 1922. These images seem a throwback to an earlier Henri style and may reflect Henri’s own emotions about the war in Europe. They are reminiscent of his earlier Spanish types. But these new images do not rely on simple blacks and browns as his earlier work had done. Henri imbues this new work with color that simmers below the surface and is not immediately felt. These deeper tones interact with the more intense colors in the middle range through simultaneous contrast- deep complementary tones highlighting the higher chroma areas. These images are experiments that help Henri realize his command of color in the late Irish portraits of children of 1926-28. Henri, in the late portraits, consolodates his color expression and allows color to vibrate on the surface of the canvas and within the viewer’s mind through optical transformations.
My interest in these “Permanent Palettes” connects to my recent interest in George Inness’ landscapes. There is a prevailing sense of suppressing a portion of the full palette through neutral mixes and allowing other parts to reach full chroma. Combining these opposing levels of intensity creates a dynamic force within the image. By holding this force down, one actually gains in color power. It is an interplay that allows me to understand more clearly, the optical effects achieved through the juxtaposition of the large masses, the power of the neutral, and the movement between color temperature in the modeling of forms.
This type of experimentation opens one up to new ways of working and thinking. Henri’s goal was to engage in each painting moment as a new experience in which the artist brings to bear his whole being, not relying on rote habits of past painting methods.
“Personal experimentation is revealing, and, once you get into it, immensely engaging.”